the United Colours of Africa

Eastern Cape:

centre of the traditional indigenous and ancient music of Southern Africa :



The traditional music of the Xhosa of the Eastern Cape is nurtured and developed throughout cycles of life from birth, initiation and marriage to death. Over generations, the Xhosa have woven the ancient threads of their culture into a brilliant tapestry of authenticity and beauty. From an unborn child to an infant on the mothers back; from a toddler playing the drum to a youngster dancing with ankle rattles and holding shakers music is everywhere and it is intuitive.


There is an ancient rock painting in the caves of the Maluti mountains of Lesotho depicting a performance with a musical bow. The painting is of a man tapping on the strings of seven hunting bows that are fixed into the ground. Musical bows developed from the Khoisan who soothed their prey with the melody plucked on their hunting bow. The indigenous people were at one with nature and so was their music. The Xhosa were said to have got all their music and clicks from the Bushmen.

The musical bow is an ancient string instrument. It’s found all over the world. In Southern Africa the bow has a tremendous variety of names and variations and is played by all indigenous tribes. There are bows resonated with the mouth called ‘mouth bows’ and bows resonated with a calabash called ‘gourd bows’. Bows are a cornerstone of Xhosa traditional music

The bow is commonly used for divination. In the case of Nosinothi Dumiso she became ill, and began to go blind in one eye. This was interpreted as a call from the ancestors that she must become a diviner (thwasa). The way she chose to become a medium was to take up playing the uhadi (bow).

The uMrhubhe is the Xhosa name for a friction mouth bow. The friction bow consists of a hollow bar or half-tube of bamboo, fitted with a wire string and tuning peg. The string is set in vibration by means of a miniature bow of wood and hair from a cows tail. umrhubhe players employ a very deep throated singing which sounds like the Ngqokola. The larger version is uHadi. uMhadi means a deep pit. Dr. Dave Dargie makes his own uHadi using steel wire from Europe, and locally cut tree branches.


Ngqoko is the home of a unique tradition of split tone throat singing called “uMngqokolo.” Legend has it that a style of uMngqokolo singing developed when a youngster held a beetle in her mouth and imitated the sound: a continuous deep buzz. This sung simultaneously with floating high pitched melodic overtones create the mystical and very rare sound of split tone singing.

Ethnomusicologist Dave Dargie had the great fortune of discovering the uMngqokolo singing in the Lumko district in 1980. He documented the music and has circulated it internationally through his recordings. This musical style is now a National Heritage. The Ngqoko Xhosa Traditional Music Ensemble, a group of ten to twelve mature female singers, promoted by Dave Dargie and Tsolwana Mpayipeli, have successfully taken this traditional culture into a concert format. The women perform barefoot and have striking white painted faces, and Xhosa beaded costumes and headgear. They perform songs and dances from cultural rituals and combine singing with the playing of traditional instruments, such as the musical bows and friction drum, 'uMasengwane', which is played by rubbing wet rope through the inside of a drum to create a deep and sonorous sound.


“Mr's Matiso's principle is that Xhosa people like to put salt into their songs. ‘Salt' is added by making the rhythm more exciting through techniques of clap delay and disguising the beat, cross-rhythm patterns, ‘swinging' the rhythm and so on.” Dlamini

The amaMpondo from the wild coast of the Transkei have a variety of dance styles which include, umtyityimbo, ingadla, inkciyo, isijadu, and ukuxhentsa. The latter is as wild as the waves of the ocean. It is built from the rhythm of the human heart beat. The dancer enters a deep meditative state after dancing for hours on end, accompanied by d ums and hand clapping. The dance movements are highly charged and electric, and the drumming is alive with the energy of transformation.

NtombeThongo was born and grew up in Mthambalala village close to Ntafufu river mouth about 25 km from Port St Johns. Thongo became a sangoma (healer) in 1983 at six years of age. The sangoma training includes dream interpretation and traditional plant medicines. His musical career began in 1992 as a guitarist. He has taken his healing to a musical platform. He says, “Seventy percent of the things I sing about come from my dreams. Music and healing go together. The whole thing about my life is uniting people. I am healing all those who listen to my music.”

NtombeThongo has released one album which won the South African Traditional Music Award (SATMA) for best Isixhosa album in 2012 and was nominated for a South African Music Award (SAMA) for best Maskhanda album in 2013. Thongo plays traditional instruments, choreographs, composes and performs with his 8 piece band, Thongo African Band. They perform in a musical style called Transkhanda.


Grahamstown, once the second largest city in South Africa, is an important cultural hub with the National Arts Festival a long standing initiative in showcasing indigenous music of the Eastern Cape.

The Department of Arts and Culture (DAC) present an annual Eastern Cape Indigenous Music and Dance Ensemble at the National Arts festival. These are very entertaining showcases of the deep musical traditions of select Xhosa sub-tribes such as amaBhaca, abaThembu, amaKhoisan, abeSuthu, amaNdiya and amaMpondo. Groups are chosen from the Isingqisethu Wild Coast Indigenous Festival. The DAC also present a visual arts and crafts festival, a multilingual WordFest and the Dakawa jazz and community festival.

ABOUT MADOSINI : Madosini Manqina Latozi from the Transkei is the most famous performer of Xhosa musical bow today. She never attended school. She was influenced by her mother who was also an expert in the playing and making of traditional instruments. “Without nature there is no life and without life there is no music. These are the foundation stones for humanity,” said Madosini.

In one of her songs Utando Luphelile 'My son,' she sings. “Love has disappeared nowadays since money became the living thing. Modernism has taken us by surprise. Go anywhere in the world and you will find that people are hopeless, there is no self-reliance. People would just go past you without even saying hello. What is life then ? There is total destruction of mother nature through the lack of communication, in short no love.”

In Sazi Dlamini's masters thesis he writes, “Bow music was an integral part of female contemplation on the poetics of emotional relationships between and among individuals, society and state.”

MaDosini said in the interview with Sazi Dlamini : The origin of the bow came “Through God's ( Thixo ) revelation … since God reveals to his people what should make them happy. God then revealed umrhubhe to his ancient people who had no things to make them happy … He invented umrhubhe .”

MaDosini said in an interview in the same paper: “Umrhubhe is a girls' instrument. AmaXhosa girls then grew up making it sound, they did not attend school, their school was this thing. School was there, but it was something that was looked down upon. The thing that was focused on and elevated was umrhubhe .”

“The bow does not agree to be followed by many people since it has a quiet voice. It can go together with other musical instruments, it does go well together with segankuri [Sotho friction-bow]. It goes very well together with segankuri . I use amanqashela ankle rattles when I am performing on stage. I put them on my ankles.” MaDosini

Madosini (an amaqaba , (‘red' people) never learnt to read, write and speak in English. However, as she informed the interviewer in isiXhosa, pointing to the umrhubhe bow in her hands, … “I went to this school. When I was young, children who went to school to learn English were ridiculed. This [pointing to bow], taught me about life. This was our way of entertainment. It also inculcated good manners in a person. We were nurturing graceful manners. Because you are told with direct reference to it and you are told: ‘This is how you should hold umrhubhe bow when you meet an older person … Molo Tata, Molo Mama' [Hello Father, Hello Mother]. Not to ignore – when your mother and father are walking by.”

“I make this umrhubhe myself. This wood I cut myself. And this is lujiko (coil) of umliza (ankle bangle). Now we buy this wire. We used to wear it on our feet. So now you buy it and burn it over a fire to stretch /straighten it to be like this. Its name while it is still [coiled] is known as umliza . After burning it is called lijiko . Once you have got this ijiko and the stick you call it umrhubhe .”


Ngqoko village overlooking Lady Frere is about 50km from Queenstown, a pulsing heart and motherland of Eastern Cape music. It is said that a San king once settled in Ngqoko and intermingled his tribes with those of the Xhosa. They became the Xhosa abaThembu. SA’s late former President, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, hailed from this clan.

This region has sheep and stones, hills and concrete round huts with tin roofs. On the flatlands of this area are council buit one bedroomed township houses, resembling a labour camp to service Queenstown. Up on the hill one of the country's most established traditional music performance groups lives.

The lady Frere singers are a group of 10 elderly women. The music is nurtured throughout cycles and cycles of life and death, throughout generations of families and homesteads, the women of the Xhosa have woven the ancient threads of their culture into a remarkable tapestry of authemticity and beauty.

Level Site
Ancestral memory
Bushmen and Xhosa
Intermingled between two peaks
On the Ngqoko river

One of the most unique forms of singing in Southern Africs is 'Split Tone singing.' Ngqoko is the home of a unique tradition of split tone throat singing called “uMngqokolo.” Legend has it that a style of uMngqokolo singing developed when a youngster held a beetle in her mouth and imitated the sound: a continuous deep buzz. This sung simultaneously with floating high pitched melodic overtones produce the very mystical and rare sound of split tone singing.

Ethnomusicologist Dave Dargie discovered uMngqokolo singing in the Lumko district in 1980 and documented the music and circulated it internationally through his recordings . This musical style is now recognised as part of SA's national Heritage. The Ngqoko Xhosa Traditional Music Ensemble, a group of ten to twelve mature female singers, promoted by Dave Dargie and Tsolwana Mpayipeli, have successfully taken this traditional culture into a concert format. The women perform barefoot and have striking white painted faces, Xhosa beaded costumes and headgear. They perform songs and dances from cultural rituals and combine singing with the playing of traditional instruments, such as the musical bows and friction drum, 'uMasengwane', which is played by rubbing wet rope through the inside of a drum to create a deep and sonorous sound.

Sakhuluntu (building humanity)

Music is blessed mostly by the support it receives to get instruments to those that require, rehearsal spaces, performances spaces and collaborative learning experiences all the way round.

There is a self-styled music project in Joza, section 9 Grahamstown, eGazini called Sakhuluntu that is taking shape in the Eastern Cape.
Vuyo Booi inherited a single roomed dwelling in Section 9 Joza. He immediately turned it into a cultural centre, saying, “God gave me this home to look after His children.” Today they train thirty kids from Sakhuluntu in traditional dance and music. This music project is fuelled by passion alone and is a clear example of how music opportunity is a great leveller for children: whether the poorest of the poor or the richest of the rich, music makes us realise we are one.

Sakhuluntu Cultural Group, a music project fuelled by passion alone is a clear example of how music opportunity is a great leveller for children: whether the poorest of the poor or the richest of the rich, whether the prettiest of the pretty or the ugliest of the ugly. Music makes us realise we are one.

On World Peace Day 2009, I watched at the Sakhuluntu venue in Joza, a full choral performance of a variety of songs including own compositions sung in a terrific harmony of three voices. The drumming was of a high standard and very natural, whilst the dancing was raw and expressive in the style of the traditional African Ngoma. The gumboot dancing was excellent.

“The aim of giving them the opportunity to choreograph their own dance routines, add their own songs and develop their own theatre skills, is to enable them to witness their own inner potential and to experience what can be achieved if one learns to co-operate in a group. These experiences will nurture a sense of hope and ambition within the children. We are out to enable very underprivileged children to dream and to problem solve creatively and with self-confidence.” Sakhuluntu annual report.

Almost everyday the council one roomed house of Vuyo Booi is filled with visitors. I have visited this home on many occasions showing once more that the experience of ‘township dwellers' is absolutely human. One such visitor to Vuyo's home was possibly the oldest man in the neighbourhood who wandered across the road on his crutches nearly everyday. Vuyo described him as being “no liki liki.” ‘No liki liki' means he doesn't require any ‘nice things,' or ‘treats.' When I offered him a cup of tea he said no.

And this is the extraordinary aspect of the township experience that makes me refer to it more as a community. People are connected and things are shared. And this can make for quite a relaxed lifestyle in certain regards. But you need the attitude. For instance Vuyo said to me, “I don't worry for anything. I don't worry for money, or for food, or to bath ... I worry for nothing!”

Sakhuluntu utilises a heart centred and soft approach in education. Vuyo Booi inherited a single roomed dwelling in Section 9 Joza. He immediately turned it into a cultural centre, saying, “God gave me this home to look after His children.” They have thirty kids, two big drums and hand- made instruments. They are called Sakhuluntu Cultural Group and this music project fuelled by passion alone is a clear example of how music opportunity is a great leveller for children: whether the poorest of the poor or the richest of the rich, whether the prettiest of the pretty or the ugliest of the ugly. Music makes us realise we are one. My involvement with Sakhuluntu and founding member Vuyo Booi had begun in 2007. My purpose in 2007 was at ILAM and to conduct the research that has led to the scripting proposal for the 13 part DVD series, 'Traditional instruments of Southern Africa.' When researching the work of Hugh Tracey at ILAM I received a call from a friend, Adam. Speaking in the spirit, he said to me, “check the other side.” I thanked him, turned around and introduced myself to the gentleman standing behind me, Vuyo Booi. I asked him if he could “show me the other side.” He said he could.

Vuyo took me to the other side. At that point in his life, the other side was the semi-township area of Fingo where he lived in a tin room. He explained to me that I would always be welcome to visit him, on the 'other side. The 'other side' is the so called township. I believe it is better called 'community.' The 'other side' is also a pun as there is another side. It is the ancestral realm. In a sense you have to go to the 'other side' to get to the 'other side. This is why you will find many many white men such as Hugh Tracey and Jim Bailey who travelled to Africa from Europe for their healing or like me and others who were actually born here to balance our own ancestral lines. Visiting Sakhuluntu in Gtown JOZA Section 9 was a journey to oneself and a joy to witness others. Living in the township one grows accustomed to a stillness of mind and a natural way unflustered y the external world.

The notion of poverty as a state of mind is acclaimed when the children play in bundles of joy occasionally expressing hunger which can be satisfied with a banana self shared between the dozen of them or a bowl of porridge shared with a spoon. Alcohol entrenches the township dweller with a low sense of self esteem. For the individual to choose to rise above alcohol use, they may reel against a community of users who feel threatened yanothers transformation. Lessons in how to feed a hungry child.Lessons in sharing, the spirit of generosity.Lessons in compassion, tolerance, non judgement.Lessons of the light of a child.The childlike qualities of the blissful existence that turns every day into an eternity.

Coming to noon


In 2009 Sakhuluntu created a centre piece at the annual National Arts Festival. Their collaborative performance was entitled ‘Amazing!' It was a platform for sharing their learning with the street kids or ‘streetlights.' ‘Streetlights' is the term for the street kids. It was termed by a poet from eThekwini called Mduduzi. At the National Arts festival, streetlights travel in from all over, particularly Nelson Mandela District.

The concept of Amazing was the sharing of opportunities and public platforms with these streetlights. The concept began in the communities with the community youths. Youths see no separation. Amazing began in 2009 as improvised street theatre and community development driven by passion alone. Amazing was an integral initiative in integration: bringing the communities to the festival and the taking the festival to the communities. Sakhuluntu youth and the Streetlights collaborated to produce an integrated performance programme. The collaborations and live rehearsals with the street kids and the cultural group begin on day 1 of the festival, and by day 11 a diverse performance programme was prepared and performed. The Sakhuluntu cultural group youth performers under the directorship of Vuyo Booi have been rehearsing for years. Their impact on the township life in Joza has been amazing. And now their impact on the National Arts festival has been Amazing and so their impact on the entire region will be Amazing. Sakhuluntu cultural group has dancers, drummers, actors and performers from four years of age and older. Their performances include traditional dance, gumboot dance, polyrhythmic music and street theatre.

At the 2012 festival Sakhuluntu diversified and expanded their approach to include the Art factory, the Giant Puppets, traditional instruments of Southern Africa festival and carnival. The Art Factory took on the initiative of grooming and coaching the street kids into a united group of well-trained street performers. Festival goers were given wonderful free entertainment as they saw the painted children of Art Factory participating in stylish, animated, humorous and joyous street theatre.

The Giant Puppets provided free entertainment. Standing 2.7M tall they were greatly enjoyed as they walked the public spaces daily bringing great joy and laughter to groups, areas and gatherings within the festival.

A cultural crew called Mzantsi visited for festival to ensure that social upliftment was tuned up to a maximum by conducting recycling workshops at the Sakhuluntu premises in Joza. They taught the art of making and using recycled materials for musical instruments and carnival costumes. Any variety of percussive musical instruments and carnival costumes were created from a collection of bottle tops, empty drums, etc. The Mzantsi crew used bright spray paints (like the decorations for a trance party) to brighten up the musical instruments. The fruit of this work and the energetic rehearsals were displayed at the closing carnival and parades.

In 2012 a carnival walked the streets of eGazini uniting people from the town and from the communities, through expression. A carnival is 100% participative. A giant turtlephone was to lead the carnival. The 'turtlephone' is an innovative way of creating a carnival float. Several musicians played this instrument at once creating a percussive melodic orchestra that sounded unique.

Right behind them were Sakhuluntu. Throughout the carnival the Sakhuluntu youth performers from Joza township played a steady yet conversational rhythm. It became like a carpet on which we could all walk parading our unique skills, sharing our passion and purpose with humour.

When the French marching band took to the streets and joined the carnival, the cats were set amongst the pigeons. They brought a sense of purpose and unconquerable spirit married with humour, spontaneity, generosity, friendship and improvisation. There was a moment when marching down High Street, magic melted into the music, the instruments and the people. Marcus Wyatt brought the whole of High Street to life with the jazziest New Orleans styled solo that made the other horn players on the line raise their horns above their heads and dance! Passion makes a carnival.

A carnival is completely integrative. It is participative and onlookers can join the carnival at the marching pace and rhythm, in culture we are together. As we walked the streets together, actors and festival participants were joining the carnival acting out their characters in a flamboyant street parade. This is true soul food. When the French marching band broke into jazz music, they fell at least 22 paces behind the steady march of Sakhuluntu and the giant turtle musical instrument.

Even with a variety of styles of music playing together, and different groups within the carnival going off on their wonderfully expressive tangents, the carnival could not split up. For instance within the large gap between Sakhuluntu youth drummers and the marching band, some incredible performers provided the glue that kept us all together. They are a band of performers known as Hypno-Lunatics! There was an eye, a hunchback, a little prince, his friend and a farmer from the great outback. They all danced, sharing their ideology of 'Water' through their own unique expressions of themselves and their emotions in the most spontaneous expressions where movement and music became one.

The sound of absolute one-ness was born when the beating of their drums latched into synchronicity and matched the pulse of the Sakhuluntu youth performers. There was an extraordinary power that can only be described as the exuberance of beauty recognizing itself. And so we marched together all the way home.

Grahamstown National Jazz Festival

Grahamstown National Jazz festival sponsored by Standard Bank is pioneering in the way that it has amalgamated a schools jazz festival and professional jazz festival to bring an equal focus on education and entertainment.

At the Grahamstown jazz festival true talent can come through. For instance in 2012, the Sans Souci girls school from Cape Town Newlands act ‘The Jazz Cats’ featured youth from grade 8 to 12. The highlight was grade 8 trumpet player Zanele Mthuze. Her solo on the Chuck Mangione tune ‘Children of Sanchez’ was inspired. When I asked her what is the key to improvisation, she said, “Relax and let go and let the music come to you. Trust yourself.”
Benjamin Herman is a saxophone virtuoso from Amsterdam. He is running a radio programme in Amsterdam on jazz music from around the world and he plays a lot of South African jazz music. He is particularly fond of South African jazz music. Benjamin's fourteenth album is a dedication to Dutch composer Misha Mengelberg, called ‘More Mengelberg.’ Misha was in contact with South African jazz in exile and played with Dudu Pukwana. He wrote a tune for him called Kwela Pukwana.

Situated three kilometers from the jazz stages at DSG was a free township jazz festival, the Dakawa Jazz festival, held at the Dakawa community centre. Tickets were free, the hall was not packed beyond capacity and people had a good time, some sitting and listening, some dancing and others sharing their food. The performance space was shared by young and old together.
At the Township Jazz festival, Lex Ngqawana performed with The Dakawa Jazz Ensemble. They performed music from the classic era made famous by Sophiatown shuffle and bands such as Elite Swingsters and the African Jazz Pioneers. This genre of music is known globally as ‘township jazz.’ It is loved for the jive dancing that often accompanies it. I spoke to Dakawa Jazz ensemble saxophone player, Lex Ngqawana. He is 79 years of age. Mr Ngqawana and his colleagues started playing in 1954 and are still going strong. Like most of the district bands featured they are very effective in nurturing young talent. He said, “Township jazz is composed and arranged and played by people from the township. It is not hard core jazz, it is not American jazz. People dance to township jazz, they do not sit down.”
The National Jazz Festival is a fantastic platforms to express the very best of our music. Together these two festivals create an irresistible force of integration. South African jazz is South African jazz it does not know the colour of your skin or the colour of your money. South African jazz initiatives ought to unite under one banner, and an unbranded banner would be true to our cause. South African jazz is unity for audiences, musicians and students.


Grahamstown National Arts Festival 2017: An Eastern Cape Turning Point


A report conducted by South African Cultural Observatory on behalf of the Department of Arts and Culture 2016 measured the economic impact of the festival on Grahamstown at R94.4 Million and on the Eastern Cape, R377.15 Million. This was an increase of 5%. Festival attendance was down 5% . 51% of the attendee's came from Eastern Cape, 60% were English speakers and 20% African language speakers.

Rhini is the Xhosa name for the region. Its English name is after Colonel John Graham who founded the town in 1812 as a military fort. Today Grahamstown is primarily a university and education centre. Within thirty minutes of the town there are stunning blue flag beaches, indigenous forests, parks and nature reserves with excellent accommodation, arts and craft markets and entertainment facilities.


Interview Ashraf Joohardien


I left Cape Town partly because it had become a village – ArtsCape, Baxter or Peter Terien ad not much else going on. And now it is busier than Joburg, the arts scene has completely blossomed with Alexander bars and interesting little pop ups.

I pass through Grahamstown regularly. The idea is the job is situated between Joburg and Grahamstown and it being a national festival, I need to live more nationally I feel. I haven't been to Durban in the 6 months I have been with the festival. Twist did this amazing fresher festival, a free outdoor festival. It was quite an amazing.

What are your plans?

The festival is different to any of the gigs I had before. I was at UJ for 5 years. It was an open slate and I could do whatever. Before that I was with the Arts and Culture trust for five years. Arts and Culture trust is 23 years old. UJ is 10 /11 years old this year. Festival is 43 years old this year. My job is to be the caretaker of what has been built up over that time. It is a gargantuan thing. My job over the last 6 months is to wrap my head around everything that needs to happen because it goes on for 11 days of ‘amazing,' but also 11 days of everything. To deliver all of that with a relatively small team and I have added to the complexity of it by deciding to work remotely for a large portion of the time. I approach it as a thing we have been entrusted with.

I have a sense of some things I would like to rationalise, consolidate and amplify all of those clever things that managers want to do. But it works. The Fringe is fraught, but the fringe strictly speaking is not my portfolio. That said, the fringe and the main and the village green, all these things work together in an eco-system. I am responsible for the main programme and looking after the artistic committee that makes selections. And the sponsors and the partners that have been with the festival for decades, like Standard Bank the French, BASA, the Dutch – properties that we co-own and developed with them are still in play. That is primarily my focus. Main programme 4- 5- items, Fringe 320-350 items. The separation between Fringe and Main is real because if the main is not right, the audiences are not going to come to support the fringe. It is delicate. The model is very specific to this festival that happens in winter as a destination festival where roughly 20 000 people descend on the town and to make sure that they all come.

History of the festival?

There have been three iterations of the festival. The first iteration was with Lynette Marais and Lynette ran the festival up until the Tony / Ismail dispensation and a large part of that festival was when it was the Standard Bank festival, fully branded fully sponsored by Standard Bank. About a decade ago Standard Bank pulled back to make room for other sponsors, the Eastern Cape Government, so it wasn't carrying the festival as a sole sponsor which is a good thing because you never want your egg in one basket. Standard Bank had walked a long journey with the festival, 33 years up to that point? Fact check. That was a particular iteration of the festival where the board and the artistic committee were one animal. The chairperson of the board was the chairperson of the artistic committee. Back in that day in Lynette's time it was Mannia Manim, followed by Sibongile Khumalo. It has changed structurally. Now the business side is looked after by a board. I work with the artistic committee to deliver the festival as it is. The chairperson of the artistic committee which is Brett Bailey serves on a larger board.

I have been going to the festival since 1993 when I was a student, my first year at UCT. I have a sense of what it was and how it has evolved over that time.

How has it evolved?

Even 5 years ago the world was different. We didn't all live on our phones. I was listening to a thing on the radio yesterday, are there pen pals anymore? As a teenager I had a pen pal. Currently I whatsapp people in Germany about possible productions for next year. Technology has completely changed the way we interact. That is my one criticism of the festival in that it is not taken that radical technological shift into account. Not a lot of the festival is digital. Digital has radically changed how people engage with each other therefore I think it will very soon have an impact on our audiences.

With it being a destination festival where people used to write letters and be happy to wait two weeks I don't know that people are as happy to spend two hours driving from PE and all the time it takes to get to PE. So it is quite a hard sell. Fortunately it has 43 years of legacy that appeals to a lot of people.

NAF manage it from around the country?

Historically it has a relationship with the municipality. Over the 43 years they have grown wise to like an airport shop they can charge premium prices over the time of the festival which makes audiences unhappy. There has been a freeze online about the crazy cost over festival time. It is quite cheap out of festival time. And the festival can only do so much because we don't own any property or guest houses, Rhodes or residences so the festivals can lobby those stake holders to try and be reasonable and not alienate audiences.

An evolution I would like to see is more of a national footprint and feeling around that sort of stuff in the way that the Eastern Cape has come on board like a bear. They are very supportive of the festival. Makana municipality has become very open and engaged vigorously with festival management to try and make it as safe and comfortable as possible. It is a huge local and international tourist driver. And we need that entire infrastructure to happen. If the Makana municipality was not able to deliver a safe place for a festival or if Rhodes must suddenly become unruly with feesmustfall and they start burning the streets. The festival is quite liked. It is a small team in year to year offices which is why we are able to run something like the Cape Town Fringe. It is year to year. So it is a legacy moment that it is in Grahamstown. We wouldn't want it to be anywhere else, but there is a need for the festival to expand its properties more nationally and one of the immediate spaces would be making it possible for people to access the festival digitally. For example we have a robust programme which could happen anywhere. I am looking at ways to anchor that in the digital sphere. Netflix and cellphone have changed ways in which people consume media. Film has become a niche genre. Those sorts of things I would like to open up. Something like film has the ability to make sure the festival is not fully anchored in physical time and space. If one looks at the type of screenings that the national theatre is doing of productions. I enjoyed the cinema experience of War Horse because it wasn't the light travelling version that came to South Africa. It was the full version and I felt like I was sitting in that massive auditorium. There is something democratising about digital once you get over the hurdle of internet access. If people can be online suddenly a lot more things become possible and you don't have to fork out flights and accommodation and feed yourself every day. I would like to see the festival inhabiting the digital space a little bit more. What I loved about the Live arts festival that just happened in Cape Town, is it was all free. The current model we have now it is just not possible. We work on box office bottom line ticketing income. It all has to happen because no artists are traveling to Grahamstown just for the love it. We have more sponsors coming on board but because things are so much more expensive. In terms of salary-ing actors and artists we keep our overheads low, art is a form which is resource demanding. It is rare that you can make work that is just for free. I am feeling for the young artists, what they were able to do 5 years ago. The bank has very generously increased the prize money on CPI but the cost of making things, CPI doesn't cover the exponentially increasing costs. Looking for ways to make it accessible, cheaper in which artists can go home with a better buck.

Interesting online article – the 3 reasons artists don't earn a living – fear afraid they are not good enough 2. Have you made the time investment like Rob Van Vuuren who has been working the festival stages for 20 years. He has built up his brand and he is active in all spheres. Rob is a curious creature that shows how an artist can work a main, work a fringe. And how many different kinds of fringes there are. I came to the fringe with an independent student production from UCT. We drove up in a car, slept on the floor and figured out how to make it. There are many different ways of experiencing the fringe. Certain artists know that they can earn the next six months' salary because they know what they are going to do; they have a keen understanding of the audience and the eco system of the festival. I also think it is my responsibility as festival management to re-engage artists in that conversation. We try not to prescribe, it is a platform and the festival across the year has shown the state of arts in the economy in terms of what artists were able to do. The scale and size of the festival.

I don't think that the fringe should be curated. It is a defining aspect of the fringe. It gives you a sense of where the country is at. Its temperament, its mood. I have been told by people like Adrian Sitchell that that was very much its purpose in the 80's. I experienced a lot of that in the 90s and I use the festival platforms for the different organisations that I have worked for over the last ten years. All have tried to have a national footprint and what better place than the National Arts Festival. It is a unique opportunity where creative minds in English speaking arts will come together and spend 11 days and see people that you would not necessarily see in the same place in any part of the country at the same time. That was always part of its value proposition. Maintaining that is quite hard given contemporary competition.

The smaller festivals are quite different as they are not able to draw the cross section of audience that the festival does. Vry Fees is a regional festival. It is easier for them to grow an audience because you don't have the hurdle of getting audiences to festivals. Grahamstown relies on a 50% local and national/international audience. 51% of the audience come from the EC region. Being a destination festival poses peculiar challenges, qualitatively and fiscally quantitatively, those festivals are quite different. Part of the core of the NAF's learning and blueprint is its ability to work the destination component of it. All of that comes into play for the total festival experience.

The degree to which being a destination festival defines the character of Grahamstown can't be underscored enough, in terms of the available artistic budget. 35% of that budget would go toward travel accommodation per diems. I think that is easily creeping over the 40% mark and moving toward the 50% mark. And then you have CT Fringe. CT Fringe is a lot more comparable to the regional festivals. It is criticised for being a mini GT, or a cut and paste of the best of GT and not having enough CT character. Rob Murray was the guest director last year and he did a phenomenal job ion giving it CT character. It was finding its own groove. Where you position a festival will influence it. Its geography will by its nature have a huge impact on its identity and its functioning. Choosing to do a festival in GT in winter has a lot to do with the available beds because of access to the residencies.

NAF has a national footprint, access to the GT infrastructure and network structure which means it is cost effective.

CTF takes place around September. They don't overlap. A lot of artists have asked for coordination so they don't have to choose between things. Legacy means a lot of these time lines are so entrenched. GT fest is subject to when the school holidays are. We need the high school campuses and the Universities to be on break.

Another property that the festival runs is ticket hut which is a ticketing system which we sold to various entities. We bought it and had licences from Edinburgh fringe. The NAF is the most visible and has the longest track record but there are several properties which the festival runs. It has several business units. The front end has a lot to do with keeping the smoke and the glitter flying. There is a perception that emerges on its own and there is a perception that we try and manage. But there is only one part of what really is the company, NAF. There may be other festivals, ticketing businesses or units in the pipe-line. A digital arts festival that happens 365 days a year may be another?

Kenton is half an hour drive from GT and it is beautiful. In Grahamstown when the festival bumps up against the residents, you start wanting to lose your mind because it is bursting at the seams. It is too big. Reality is going to curate the number of people who come. We can only programme toward the feet coming through the town and not for empty seats. When one over programs the main then you start competing with the fringe. So I do believe we have to dial back the scale of the programme. Also determined by costs. The fringe is largely self-funded. A lot of work that we look at is work that comes more affordable because there are partners attached to it.

My predecessor was fantastic at augmenting the available resources with partnerships so that the festival felt robust. My key area is brokering those sponsorships. It is a juggling act. The festival has an artistic identity which programs a certain kind of work. Premieres are expensive. From a cost perspective it is great that the work is being developed and has time to settle. It is great to have premieres by established artists, like a new Fugard. My own work, this year's Salaam stories is 16 years old. And as recently as 3 years ago I did another version. Work benefits from having time to settle, like cheese.

The only stand-alone festival is jazz. It has its own identity and character it has a particular business model and a dedicated budget. Thinkfest is a recent invention not more than a decade. It started as a winter school. This year it is something we will change. We will partner with UJ and be a series of pop-ups. In the past a certain publication used to run discussions which will continue. And there are opportunities like when a film links to a certain production. As opposed to having that screened as part of film festival I would like to see that screened in the venue where the play is going to happen. I would like to see it happen like that. Thinkfest is going to be deployed into the festival itself. It might have a new anchor space in the monument.

The jazz program has a unique identity. There is an important symbiotic relationship between the two. It is seen as part of the overall festival, but it is a festival within the festival because it is highly specialist.

Bret as chair of the artistic committee, he is loved in the world as an emerging SA icon but we can't afford him. I would love to have him do Macbeth. As a chairperson he is very sensitive as he was involved with infecting the city so is knowledge in terms of best practices in creation. There are really focused sub committees with lead programmers in each.

This year's thematic core is “art and disruption.” It was kind of soft but an interesting challenge. These little changes and energy that Brett brings to do things differently really have made my life easier.


Interview Tony Lancaster


The biggest barrier to growth of our festival is accommodation. Every year we hit the ceiling. We are constantly looking at new and interesting ways to accommodate people. Because no matter how full this town is there is always room for one more. Talking to local home owners trying to turn their houses into temporary guest houses for the festival period. Kenton is half an hour away on a reasonable road and t has got tons and tons of accommodation. There is a lot of potential in Kenton, Bathurst and Port Alfred and for those who want to add nature and game reserves there are a ton ranging from Ado elephant park through to 5 star guest houses and reserves. There are plenty of accommodation options and I have done many years book a house with a group of friends. It works out the most cost effective way of doing it.

I wouldn't say GT has a resistance to development. It is an economy that exists 365 days a year; the festival is one thing that happens. You can't expect GT to build a massive hotel for a two week period. December January in GT are quiet, nothing much happens here. So small business owners entering into this space need to factor that into their numbers, and almost over-sell their accommodation over the rest of the year to accommodate for two quiet months. There is desire in GT for development just balancing that against the economic reality of where we are as a city. We have a cathedral, we have a city hall. We certainly refer to ourselves as the city of GT.

Sponsors: A successful marketing strategy always maps to a business strategy. Standard Banks sponsorship if the festival is SA's longest running arts sponsorship. They have been with us for nearly four decades now. Government funding is slightly different they are not driven by a corporate agenda; they are driven by a policy agenda. The DAC will say the Mzansi Golden Economy project is where we are getting our funding from and Mzansi Golden Economy priorities are job creation or social cohesion.

The conversation is not different between the DAC and Standard Bank. They are similar conversations that come from a different starting point, perhaps. The Eastern Cape government has also been sponsors of our for 15 years now and that is hugely successful and they have a mandate for their money which is to showcase the province in the context of the festival.

The partnership with Rhodes is obviously very important from logistical side. We use a lot of their accommodation and spaces as venues. But obviously there is a sharing of intellectual capital as well. We run the Thinkfest which is a winter school programmed by a professor and there is obviously a synergy between the two entities. We live in a university town, an education centre. It is part of our DNA and how we present ourselves every year. I am not sure that the festival can exist without the university and similarly the university does pretty well out of the festival in terms of its own marketing and positioning and the way it presents itself to the world and financially. It is a symbiotic relationship between the two entities and a good relationship.

This is my 20 something year of attending the festival. It is my 10th festival as CEO but my first ever festival was 1991 as a student at Rhodes. I have come most years since then in different capacities. I have never attended the festival as a festival goer. I have only ever worked here. In the first year I worked on the radio station, I ran a venue I came as a member of the media I came as a sponsor for a few years. I have always worked on it. I believe it is a great festival t come to and I look forward to doing that one day. Until then I am happy working for it.

CT Fringe

A few years back the board sat down and said the festival is great, it accounts for the lions' share of our revenue, it is our big event but in order to survive in today's market place as an arts business we need to look beyond an 11 day festival in GT once a year. We needed to start exploring and saving up other complimentary businesses. We established the CT Fringe Festival, the CT Buskers festival, a ticketing business called tickethub we have recently got involved with a touring production we are touring around the country and we are exploring a new event. All of those things contribute to the core of our business and make us less dependent financially on a single event. So, in theory a percentage of my salary gets paid from all these different activities. From a brand point of view it puts our brand in more spaces and establishes us more strongly as a multi-facetted arts brand. It is using our expertise. Our core business is we organise festivals and big events the more we can play it out in different environments the better it is for the sustainability of the brand. content portal : quote the source © 2013 Struan Douglas of AFRIBEAT.COM
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