Dancing with the Diaspora
Germany is an important market with a big demand for jazz. Munich is the centre of the recording industry, with seven independent record labels.
ECM was founded in 1969 by 26-year-old Manfred Eicher. With the support of Deutsche Gramaphone to press and record its jazz records, ECM developed an international repertoire of outstanding quality. Enja was founded in 1971. Subsidiary label Yellowbird releases innovative jazz such as that of pianist Johanna Borchert.
Jazz month in Germany reaches its climax in Bremen for the annual Jazzahead music trade fair. In 2017, the 12th edition of the fair attracted 17,600 exhibitors and participants from 60 countries to the main conference centre. Numbers were 16% up year on year.
Finland, in the 100th anniversary of its independence, was selected as the partner country. Eight Finnish bands and exhibitions of visual arts, film and literature were presented under the slogan "Together".
The Bremen orchestra is one of the best in Germany. It has been invited by the German foreign office to set up an orchestra
In 2018, Poland will be the partner country at Jazzahead, a first for Eastern Europe and a sign of the role jazz is playing to build unity across Europe.
Support for the arts in Germany is incredible: 18 state universities offer jazz studies at no cost. Opportunities include degrees and exchange programmes. The new European Jazz Master, or EUjam, is a network of five schools in Paris, Amsterdam, Trondheim, Copenhagen and Berlin.
There is growing emphasis on learning music as young as possible, with improvisation and jazz lessons for children at kindergarten becoming a focus. Norway took the lead in this a decade ago.
Julia Hülsmann, Berlin University of the Arts
What, Where, When, How and Why?
I was teaching in Hannover at the University for quite some years and I have been teaching at the University in Berlin and last year I had a guest professorship at the Jazz institute in Berlin which is the school where you can study jazz in Berlin. We have two because Berlin was divided in two parts. Only the jazz department was forced to get together so there is one jazz institute now located in West. This is where you can study jazz in Berlin.
What can you study in Germany? You can do a bachelor of arts and a master as well, with different subjects. You can study your instrument. You can study composition. There are only in a few schools that offer a bachelor of jazz composition. You can have an educational or only artistic part. For the masters programme they vary. Most are for two years. There are a few one year masters. In Berlin you can do composition and arrangement. You can have lots of exchanges all over the world. Berlin or Cologne and then you can go for one year to Barcelona, or as a student you have to find the city and the school that provides this. Or you can do a European Jazz Master, EU Jam. Only 5 schools in Europe do this – Paris Amsterdam, Trondheim, Copenhagen and Berlin. It is a two year programme. You have one school where you start. First semester is in this town and then you to a different country for another semester and another town for another semester and then you come back. This is a new programme and I think very interesting because of this networking idea and mixing with these different scenes.
We have 18 schools in Germany, state schools where you can study jazz. Berlin, Bremen, Dresden, Essen, Hamburg, Hannover, Cologne, Leipzig, Lubek, Mannheim, Munich, Nuremberg, Zubruk, Stuttgart, Weimar, Lutzberg, Meins, Osterberg.
The quality of this jazz education is very high. I am doing a lot of preparation courses for people who want to apply for this. There are a lot of people who want to study jazz. It is very international. In Berlin you have people from many countries. I have a project tonight with 14 different women from 8 different countries, Hungary, Turkey, Denmark, Netherlands … and we have applicants from the US for EUjam. It is very international. This also means that the quality is very high. It is a very inspiring young crowd with lots of visions and ideas – great musicians.
In Germany most of the schools have an age limit. You can't start to study over 27, but every school is different. When you want to do a master there is no limit. In Germany we have preparation courses. In Berlin it is enormous in every music school to have lessons for theory, instrument, ensembles and history just to be prepared to apply to study.
When I wanted to study nothing like this was in existence so I bought all the books and listened to music but at the moment it is really organised. And that also means it is necessary to be prepared to know what you have to do.
How? If you come from another country you have to do a German course and be able to talk German. You have to have a paper. At the jazz institute the language is English - everybody is teaching in English. You have to apply for the audition. In some cities you pay 30 Euro and you are invited. And they have 100 – 140 people that come and play. In Hamburg you have to apply with a recording and then the professors decide who they will invite and just 30 to do the audition. When you do the audition you have different programmes. Normally the main thing is you have to play with students. You have to bring 3 standards, different kinds of standards and you have to do a theory test; harmony, ear training and history. And sometimes if you don't past this you are not allowed to play. You have to know theory.
I come back to what? The content: That's too much to tell you all. You have instrument. During the 4 years if your main instrument isn't piano you have to do piano. If your main instrument is piano in Berlin you have to do classical piano, and or another instrument. When I studied I skipped the classical piano and had drums and vocal lessons. You have ensembles. In every semester you have to do one ensemble at least. You have to be part of the big band for one semester. You have arrangement, theory, harmony and ear training and music history lessons. And you have business - about promoting yourself - which is getting more and more important. In Berlin this is not the biggest part. So, in most schools you also have workshops. This is also the typical model thing when stars are on tour they might come by the school and do a workshop.
Why? When I have young musicians sitting next to me thinking about studying jazz I always ask them why? It is important. All they can think of is - they want to become a musician and they will do it anyway. And if the urge is so big then they should do it. It is the right thing to do. If people hesitate I say don't do it. Think about it for one year. When you are in, the school is the perfect place to meet other musicians and network and develop and learn. But you don't only learn the normal stuff but you learn who you are and what you want to do. You have to learn who you are and what you want to tell people and why you want to play music. I always say to the students this is like a present that you have time to work on your own music for four years – what a paradise. But then you have to open to all the information and see what it does to you.
When you are in a city like Berlin the jazz institute is a school where you meet lots of other musicians, not only the ones who study there. In the room they are 24 hours available. Every student has a key and students can go in there whenever they want and they can practice. I see lots of musicians from all over the world meeting there and playing. Sometimes they have concerts there. And there is a studio where you can record and make your first recording in school.
Wolf Kampmann, Jazz Institute Berlin
As Duke Ellington used to say there are only two kinds of music – good music and bad music. Everyone has to decide what music is good and what is bad.
The history of jazz in Germany started right after jazz in the United States. The first jazz activities started after WW1, but the funny thing the term jazz arrived in Germany before the music arrived. Everyone wanted to play jazz but no-one new what jazz is. But they did play the music without knowing what it is. After WW1 many American musicians came to England and to France because of the solid currency in these countries. But in Germany, it was completely different. We had hyper-inflation and no-one could earn any money in Germany. So, it wasn't possible for American musicians to make their living in Germany and it was absolutely useless to send records to Germany. I would sell it for 1 million Mark and the next day 1 million Mark was a few pennies. It made no sense to make any music exports.
Musicians played the music how they thought they should play it. They got some stories from prisoners of war so they knew that there was something like syncopated music or improvised music. It must have been completely chaotic but there are no recordings left. It wasn't called jazz it was called eccentric. There were many eccentric bands and the first recordings of jazz in Germany were eccentric bands. They destroyed their instruments on stage and they shot their pistols and they had a lot of kitchen gear to make music. There are only a few newspaper articles left, but it was some kind of early free jazz. Hyper-inflation ended in 1923 and the first real jazz musicians arrived in Germany: Germans who learnt music in America and returned to Germany to play this music. One of those guys was a clarinet player Julian Voels. He went to America before the war and returned to Germany in 1924 and had the first successful jazz band. The situation in Berlin today is the same as the 20s where musicians from all over the place came except from America. It was still unattractive for American musicians to play in Germany but there were many musicians from Eastern Europe coming and one was a violin player Efim Schachmeister. He was a Jew from Odessa and he became a big star of German jazz. He was called King of the café of the violinists. He sold many records. He made the first classical jazz recording in the world in 1927. He played a classic infused version of the St Louis Blues. Efim Schachmeister was a famous womaniser and like many jazz musicians of this period he had to leave Germany in 1933 because he was a Jew. Julian Voels also had to leave and other jazz musicians as well because they were Jews.
In the US it was impossible that black and white musicians would play together in the 1920s and it was even more impossible that white musician would play in a band lead by a black musician but in Germany it happened. There was a black trombone player in Hannover by the name of Albert Wing and he had many white American jazz musicians. Germany was a good place for integration back then.
Jazz was not completely forbidden in the Nazi period. It was dangerous to play jazz and jazz musicians easily came under suspicion of being lefties or friendly with American culture, but there were also jazz musicians in Nazi Germany. Jazz concerts were not called jazz concerts but “TantsT” which means T for dance. They played until midday fashionable dance tunes and after midnight the jazz tunes.
When they realised that they are going to lose the war, they used some of these recordings to drop them on allied troops to show: ‘we are like you – and let's fight against the Russians'. Of course it was stupid. But not the most stupid things Nazi's did.
After the war jazz was American music and it became popular in Germany but was mostly copying American idols. German jazz was American jazz played by German musicians and lasted a while. One of the first famous German jazz musicians was actually a woman, Jutta Hipp, piano player. She came from Liepzig. German consisted of two states, the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany. She came from Liepzig and moved West and became famous in Frankfurt and an American music writer discovered her and invited her to live in New York to make some recordings for Blue Note. Leanord Feather was his name. Jutta Hipp became an interesting part of the New York jazz scene making a record with Zoot Sims.
The jazz capital of Germany in the 50s and 60s was Frankfurt, and Frankfurt had a very strong scene playing American cool jazz but at least there were some characters. One was "Coco" Schumann who also played with Jutta Hipp and had musicians like saxophone player Emil Mangelsdorf and trombone player Albert Mangesldorf in the band. One of the famous musicians was the clarinet player Rolf Kühn who is still alive and still very active. He had another exponent of the later German jazz scene in his band - Klaus Doldinger. It was a step further, a combination of American jazz German schlager mentality and a little bit of soundtrack composing, and it was popular back then.
We still can't talk about a genuine German jazz language back in the 50s. But that was not the reason to play this music. They didn't want to establish their music they wanted to discover the music. After the Nazi period they wanted to get behind what American jazz is. Some of the exponents of the scene in Frankfurt started to find their own language.
Albert Mangesldorf was one of the first musicians who said I am unsatisfied with the situation of German jazz. We have to find our own language. We can't copy for our entire life. We have to do something new. He was sent to East Asia by the Goethe Institute. He got infused with Eastern Asian music and tried to translate that into jazz to find something like a global jazz language. It is not so much to find a German idiom, we Germans are responsible to find a global language after all those things we did in the 30s and 40s. His record ‘Now Jazz Ramwong' was really a turning point in German jazz. It was the first example of something completely independent from American jazz. He incorporated Asian scales into his opinion about jazz. It started to become something independent. That was 1963. Mangelsdorf worked on his tone and perfected it and became a remarkable trombone player and one of the most famous in the world and one of the main figures of German jazz. He encouraged many musicians to find their own language.
In the mid-60s you see musicians in Berlin, Munich and Frankfurt and other cities like Wuppertal, playing their own music. The music became more and more free. The saxophone player Peter Brötzmann was a sculptor and played a music called Kaputspiel jazz. They wanted to destroy the post war society with music. It was the generation of '68 and that all started in the late 60s and went along with the students' movement. It was kind of brutal, for example their version of the Einheit … that was musical civil war, total opposition to the society. The trumpet player Manfred Schoof was also part of this circle and did interesting things. The name of the drummer was Jaki Liebezeit , the most famous jazz drummer back then. After playing with the Manfred Schoof Quintet he stopped playing jazz completely because he said I can't be fre-er then free. I played free jazz and liberated myself completely, but what now? So he started another band with students of Stockhausen called Can which became one of the most influential German rock bands. With rock music they wanted to liberate themselves from the English American dominated market and try to play rock music without rock n' roll and blues, and influenced many musicians all over the place. A British radio DJ John Peel called the music Kraut-rock. It became influential in Germany because what followed was a certain kind of Kraut-jazz.
Klaus Doldinger founded Passport in 1970 and they tried to translate the experience of Kraut-rock into jazz with synthesizers. The drummer in the band became the most famous German rock singer Udo Lindenberg and sold zillions of records and was the first one daring to sing in the German language because the German language was the language of Shlager back then and no serious rock musician would dare to sing in German. Udo Lindenberg established a very special language and some of his quotes are part of German language treasure.
Other musicians playing this Kraut-jazz one of which was Wolfgang Dauner , piano player and he played a lot of synthesizer. It is very experimental and not free-jazz but way more infused by the Kraut-rock virus. They were very successful back in the day and ahead of their time.
There was also an East German jazz scene in the 50s and 60s. Jazz was not very well received in East Germany, but it changed in the early 70s when the state realised that jazz especially free jazz was a good opportunity to show Western European intellectuals how free communism is. They used the creative East German jazz scene for this political purpose. And they had other ingredients in East German jazz such as labour songs, Baroch music marches, folk music … There was the Workshop Band with Günter Sommer on drums …
Cultural officials of East Germany and the German democratic republic actually succeeded. The Dutch saxophone player Willem Breuker called GDR the holy land of free improvisation, which sounds absurd to me. Somehow it worked out. Some of the musicians in East Germany took an ironical view. For example we had the central committee of the communist party in East Germany and they called some of those musicians. Some of the exponents, piano player Ulrich Gumpert , saxophone player Ernst-Ludwig Petrowsky, drummer Günter Sommer and trombone player Conrad Bauer called their quarter Centralle Quartet which was quite a joke.
Germany had two ways to get international attention it was gold medals at the Olympic Games and free jazz. It all ended in October 1989 and we had a different kind of jazz scene. It was not easy for the two jazz scenes to come together. When the wall was there everyone was keen to play with each other but after the wall came down, there was a lot of competition between East and West German musicians. But, those fights are over and it doesn't matter at all.
In Berlin we have so many different musicians and I want to give you a short introduction to musicians of the younger generation. There is the piano player Michael Wollny . He has interesting projects with his trio Wunderkamer and other constellations. He came from Frankfurt to Berlin and is now in Liepzig.
There is always the question how can we involve our German cultural heritage into this global jazz music? The drummer Eric Schaefer has found a good solution doing a record of Wagner tunes.
We have a big problem in Germany, we have more and more young jazz musicians but less and less audience to listen to them. Part of the problem is that many of the jazz musicians pay jazz for the sake of jazz. One example is: we have a huge refugee thing in Germany and it was so difficult to put up a festival of jazz musicians for refugee aid. The rock musicians did something, the classical musicians did something and the philharmonic and the techno musicians did something and the jazz musicians played a benefit concert for a jazz venue. A jazz musician just made a record about all those issues, Niles Wogram a trombone player with his band Route 70 made a record titled luxury habits.
Anja Kathmann, GEMA
Whoever uses music publically should pay the authors for the use of their music. Music authors comprise of composers and lyricists. 70 000 authors and publishers are united under GEMA. However these authors are not on the receiving end of the applause for their music as vocalists frequently sing songs written by other people whether it is at a live concert, club on the radio or retail sector, the public use of music is of benefit to the user whether it is event organisers or broadcasters. It is only fair that authors also profit from the value added for their music provided and receive payment for their work. But, it would be a laborious task for individual authors to draft all the necessary licences and agreements themselves for every single user in Germany, Europe and across the globe. Furthermore most of the time music is used publically without the writer even being aware of it.
As early as 1903, music authors in Germany came together to form the first German collecting society. Just like back then GEMA's task today is to conclude contracts with music users. These users notify GEMA of their music use and pay the corresponding licence payment which GEMA passes onto its members as royalties. Thanks to its various sister companies GEMA is able to operate on an international level. That means it passes on royalties to German authors from abroad as well as collecting compensation for German music users to pay to foreign authors. As a society GEMA makes no profits. After its costs are deducted all its income is distributed amongst composers, lyricists and publishers both in Germany and abroad. GEMA ensures that the authors receive fair payment for their work and allows them to concentrate fully on their creative output. Thus GEMA helps enable a vital music culture both within and outside Germany. www.gema.de
Gema collected more than 1 billion Euros for its 70 000 members and rights owns last year. And our operation costs are down to 12.6%: a plus of nearly 15%. 81.6 million Euros was yielded in terms of online music use-age which was double of 2015.
The agreement of the Central Collection Agency for private copyright rights (ZPU) with the association of hardware industry – smartphone and tablet products allocated a share of the income to GEMA which increased to 97.9 million from 16.3 in 2015.
Turnover trends from regional offices 370 million Euro, Radio and TV 286.2 million Euro, International royalties, 73.5 million Euro increased. 5% decline in sound recordings to 104.9 million Euro.
Harold Heker, “We focus on asserting authors rights in music marketplace subject to dynamic change, and to realise a stable earnings trend in future, compensating for financial losses in national and international sound recordings markets by increasing the income from live music and online exploitation.”
Arndt Weidler, Jazzinstitut Darmstadt
I try to give you a short clue to how public funding in Germany is structured which is very important for jazz music because jazz music couldn't exist, as in many other countries, without public funding by Federal or State governments. So it is important to know what types of federal entities are present in Germany to support jazz.
Cultural sovereignty of the states means, that cultural funding and administration is a task, widely located at the state policy level - not on the national level but on the different states; like Bavaria, Lower Saxony or Berlin.
Policy tends to delegate responsibilities and the administration of cultural issues to the next lower level - this is what the states do. Cities are largely autonomous to create their own cultural profile because they are funding most institutions. And we have many local cultural institutions in Germany like many concert houses and theatres on the local level funded publically. But: Money relationship is based on the rule: who places the order, pays the bill. This means the federal government might have a good idea how to support the local scene, and they have to pay for that. They can't tell the local government or city government. If they suggest a project they have to support it financially to.
Culture and music at community level: Cities and municipalities are responsible for maintenance of cultural institutions and their facilities. Museums, libraries, theaters, opera-houses, public music schools are fundamentally funded by the cities. They share costs for major institutions with the states. They support local and private cultural initiatives, like venues, clubs, groups, artists. If someone on the local level has an idea for a project the first addressee is the city administration.
Communities covered a share of 45.4 percent (4.5 billion Euros) of total public subsidies for culture in 2013. These include salaries for actors in theatres and salaries for musicians at the symphony orchestras and museums.
Culture and music at state policy level means the same thing. State ministries for education or culture or sciences and the arts are responsible for maintenance of cultural institutions (museums, libraries, archives, theaters, opera-houses, universities, orchestras, etc.) They delegate major music projects to “Landesmusikrat” (state council for music). They are the carrier of certain projects. They also have project related support of local initiatives. If you need support for a tour abroad they sometimes support these activities. 16 States covered a share of 41 percent of national expenses in culture in 2013.
One part is covered by the cities, the other part is covered by the state and the rest only 13% is covered by the federal government.
Public entities on the federal level that have an impact on cultural policy: The Federal Foreign Office, out of their budget gives a lot of money to the Goethe Institute which is responsible for the presentation of cultural life abroad. We have a Federal Ministery of Economic Affairs, they have certain inititaives for creative industries where you can apply for money. And we have Federal Government Commissioner for the Culture and the Media which is a department of the Chancellery here in Berlin. It is a part of Angela Merkel's responsibility. And that is what we are talking about when we talk about Federal funding of music and culture in Germany.
Major institutions on the federal level and funding programs reffering to jazz music in Germany: We have the Federal Government Commissioner for the Culture and the Media. And then we have three major institutions, like the Federal Cultural Foundation, Initiative Musik and the Deutscher Musikrat. All of them have different projects they support and different adressees. They work on different major groups who can apply to their funding.
First of all there is the Federal Cultural Foundation: The purpose of the Foundation is to promote and fund art and culture within the framework of federal responsibility. Preservation of the national cultural heritage and support of cultural excellence to strenghten the reputation of Germany abroad. Support of innovative cross-cultural programs and projects within all art forms : If you have someone in your home country that wants to realise a project together with a German partner and you need support for that – a cross-country poject - the Federal Cultural Foundation could be a goood addressee with their f ocus on cultural exchange and cross-border cooperation.
The German Music Council is an umbrella organisation for more than 100 member associations and institutions. It has millions of single members in Germany. It contains the choirs, orchestras, amateurs, professional organisations, composers, music schools and all kinds of organisations. And for that reason it has a strong political power in Germany. It s erves as an advisor and competence centre for politics and civil society . It also creates its own projects to promote young musical talents. And for jazz music there are two main projects of the German music council - BuJazzO , a German national youth big band and Jugend jazzt!, a promotion for young talent that builds talent up to a final competition at the national level. They develop the greatest talents in jazz music. It o ffers a platform for cross-linking information and documentation. It is the founder of the www.miz.org
Initiative Musik is an agency to execute and administrate support programs that aim to strenghten the pop, rock and jazz scenes, funded by the federal commissioner. It inititates national platforms and net-working opportunities for various players on all levels, which means they bring together representatives of the states and cities administrations together with the federal responsibility. It combines both cultural and economic development of artists and music companies. It is c o-funded by GEMA, GVL (association of Rights Holders) and German Music Council.
We have a new funding assoccitaion, “Musikfonds des Bundes“ since 2016, funded by Federal Commissioner. There are seven different organisations as founding members (among others, Initiative Musik and Union deutscher Jazzmusiker.) There purpose is to improve all kinds of avant-garde music through all the genres contemporary, electronic, improvised and jazz with special consideration of audience development programs. It is not only appliable for organisations but also private projects and projects for musicians. They have an annual budget 1.1 million Euro. No projects have been realised yet. The first rounds for applications ends this month.
A general rule in Germany is if you apply for public money you always have to bring your own money from private sponsors or your company.
Now, we have some major non-governmental players on a jazz level. These are not all of them but some of them, the most important. Bundeskonferenz Jazz (BK Jazz) was established in 2003. It is a loose association of representatives from different fields of activity in the jazz scene, agencies, labels, media, clubs, musicians, research, education, festivals and so on... Some of the members represent certain institutions and organisations and some of them are private representatives of media, agency or festival. It is a lobbying organisation and serves as a political advisor. It is the initiator of sustainable projects to improve and develop jazz life in Germany such as the German Jazz Meeting now German Jazz Expo at Jazzahead and the APPLAUS-Club Award for music clubs in Germany that present live music. There is no money in this group. It is a voluntary network and very efficient.
Union Deutscher Jazzmusiker is a musicians organisation in Germany founded in 1973 . It is a p rofessional interest group of jazz musicians in Germany aiming to improve professional working conditions of jazz musicians. Last year they published a first study of working and life conditions of professional jazz musicians in Germany ( www.jazzstudie2016.de ) which was very successful within the scene. It r epresents professional musicians in various boards and committees (Music Council, KSK which is socila insurance for artists in Germany and BK Jazz). And it awards the German Jazz Award (together with GEMA, GVL and Composers Association.) It is also called the Albert Mangelsdorf prize.
We have the Deutsche Jazz Föderation since 1954. It is the association of jazz clubs and local jazz initiatives in Germany. It aims to improve the conditions for smaller and non-profit jazz clubs. It is challenged by the LiveMusikKommission which is a similliar organisation for all kind of music clubs. Many of the younger jazz clubs tend to become a member of the LiveMusikKommission which leads to the point that the Deutsche Jazz Föderation has a hard standing at the moment.
Jazz and World Partners and the association of record labels and distributers, represents the interest of bigger labels and many one man companies. They promote activities on the major spheres liek Womex and Jazzahead! It is a partner for ECHO Jazz-Award and German JazzExpo .
Jazzinstitut Darmstadt is where I work. It is a public archive, documentation and research centre for jazz music, funded by the City of Darmstadt. It collects and provides information about jazz worldwide. We have a database on the internet ( www.wegweiserjazz.de ) if you are looking for adresses and people in the jazz scene worldwide you may use this tool as a finder for this information. Jazzinstitut Darmstadt applies to scholars, music professionals, and jazz enthusiasts equally. We provide different services such as a Jazzindex, huge collection of literature about jzaz music from the beginning up to today and a weekly newsletter JazzNews providing information about jazz worldwide every week. We promote workshops, conferences, concerts and inititate and support national and international co-operative projects in the field of jazz research, archives and information centres for music
Public Radio in Germany is very important for the development of jazz music in Germany. It is a c consortium of 9 regional public broadcaster (ARD) plus one national (Deutschlandfunk) . It has a h uge impact on perception and distribution of jazz because they have nationwide radio-airplay for jazz music. They are also a major promoter for festivals - Jazzfest Berlin, Deutsches Jazzfestival Frankfurt, the oldest festival in Germany since 1953, organized and promoted by the regional radio. They also sponsor highly endowed prizes for musicians like the SWR- or WDR-Jazz prizes and many others. They maintain four renowned professional big bands - NDR, WDR, HR and SWR-Bigband. This gives professional engagements for musicians but are also known for special productions with other musicians abrod or from Germany.
The jazzahead! Market place in Bremen had its premiere in 2006 with mainly national representatives. It was a national market place for the local jazz scene but it has had steady growth since then. It had international aspirations from the beginning. The German jazz meeting was one way to develop these international aspirations where we presented the German jazz on a showcase festival and invited international guests. They have partner countries since 2010. You will meet there thousands of international qualified visitors. It is a place for exchange of ideas, meeting point, place to freshen contact – and business is a subsequent effect. It is an opportunity to meet and talk to people. It is becoming bigger and bigger.
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